science questions about baking

:))). That’s what science is about, accuracy in its methods and results that can be reproduced consistently. Recipes that do not contain acidic ingredients and that need more leavening than the baking soda alone can provide are made with baking powder. Baking soda- sodium hydrogencarbonate commonly referred to as sodium bicarbonate- is an indispensable ingredient in most baked goods which we consume see how much you know about this compound. First isolated by Nicolas Leblanc in the 1790s, it wasn’t until the Solvay process was introduced in the 1860s that industrial-scale production became possible. As the heat continues to rise, the egg proteins coagulate, the starch in the flour absorbs any remaining moisture, and the gluten loses its elasticity. In these cakes, it is not necessary to use chlorinated cake flour. Baking is a science. Glass takes longer to heat up and to cool down than metal. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. However, you could also use this for junior high school or even high school if the student took the experiment and used it a bit more in explaining how the principle of "knockout" works. After Baking . It clocked in at 102 feet wide and weighed over 40,000 pounds. Learning the science behind baking can help make the process more fun and rewarding. Baking Soda Popper. The stages of baking. The rise in your baked goods comes from two things. First, when your leavening agent is heated, whether it’s baking soda or baking powder, it releases carbon dioxide into the dough or batter around it. The Science: During baking, heat is transferred from the oven through the pan and into the batter or dough. This causes a buildup of pressure inside the cake which can cause the top surface to crack to release the pressure. Cookie Science 2: Baking a testable hypothesis Using cookies recipes, I develop a hypothesis you can test in any kitchen When designing a scientific experiment, it’s important to have an idea you can test by changing just one variable at a time. Learning chemistry can be as easy as pie, or maybe just a piece of cake. These cookies do not store any personal information. This is a quiz about everything to do with baking. First, the protein in the eggs forms a layer around the already butter-covered air bubble, preventing it from collapsing while baking in the oven. Take the Quiz: The Science of Baking. We’d love you join our Science Sparks community on G+ and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. No, this quiz is a full measure of the possibilities of what could be going on when youre baking… The jagged sugar crystals cut air into the butter and the butter forms a layer around the air pockets, making the mixture lighter and fluffier. Baking Questions Section. For easy visualization, think of your cake as a network of tiny, soon-to-be-delicious balloons. If you follow all the instructions precisely, your end product is always the same. In high-ratio cakes, use cake flour to keep them from falling. The high level of sugar increases the gelatinization temperature of the starch in the flour to higher than the boiling point of water. You’ve done it a time or two. In this science project, you will … It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. This means that it will take longer for the batter or dough to start baking in the glass pan and it will keep baking for longer after the pan is removed from the oven. How many of our top 10 science experiments can you tick off the FREE checklist?. For more information, see What’s the difference between butter and margarine? Or discovered you’re out of butter and need to know if there’s a substitute? If the leavening acid reacts too late after the top crust of the cake has formed, the cake cannot expand when the carbon dioxide gas is produced in the leavening reaction. The Science: Chemical leavening occurs when a leavening base and a leavening acid react in the batter to create carbon dioxide gas bubbles which are what makes the batter rise (leaven) during baking. Your email address will not be published. Explore force and motion with a physics lab experiment, make a DIY battery with our potato battery kit, study alternative energy with a solar power experiment, learn about acids-base reactions with a bath bomb science kit, observe the microscopic world around you with a home microscope, and explore your backyard with rockhound kits. There’s plenty more where that came from. Tray a Day Science Experiments for Kids. Other baked products contain enough acidic ingredients to cause the right amount of carbon dioxide release from the baking soda. The process of creaming is, simply put, just mixing butter and sugar together. To keep from writing duplicate content It would be greatly appreciated if you would use the search function I have set up to find your answer or browse the headlines. Top 10 Science Experiments for Kids. Baking is a science as well an art, and the key to better baking is understanding the chemical forces at play. It is standard to lower the baking temperature by 25°F and lengthen the baking time by about 10 minutes when baking in a glass pan compared to a metal pan. The Maillard reaction is named after the French scientist Louis Camille Maillard (1878-1936), who studied the reactions of amino acids and carbohydrates in 1912, as part of his PhD thesis, which was published in 1913. Thumbs up! What is the difference between baking soda and baking powder? Apart from the flavor it imparts, this chemical reaction is also responsible for the golden brown color of pastries and breads (and even steaks and dulce de leche). Baking Soda powered boat. Check out these science fair project ideas that involve food or cooking chemistry. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The Science: The structure of a cake is set when the starch in the flour gelatinizes during baking. Scroll to start quiz How much do you love muffins and cookies? Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Lastly, it gives your baked goods that appetizing tinge of yellow. if it’s the browning of proteins, that’s mailliard reaction. If the air is very dry, moisture from the cookies escapes, making them hard. For example, in a cake flour gives the structure, eggs bind the ingredients, baking powder and baking soda make it rise, fats like butter and oil make it less chewy, and sugar sweetens and keeps it moist. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Created by Leni Davenport 172.8K Plays. Store this in the fridge and use it to grease your pans. That’s what science is about, accuracy in its methods and results that can be reproduced consistently. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Fizzing rocks with baking soda. All three are calorie-dense foods, and the calories add up fast. Almost all baking recipes call for flour, eggs, fat, sugar, and a leavening agent (baking soda or powder), and follow a standard sequence of steps. Mostly, baking is physics and chemistry, both of which we are breaking down for you via our step-by-step illustrated guide. Baking is a both a science and an art. The sugar level is not high enough to raise the starch gelatinization temperature so the cake does not fall. Baking is a science. Great read, Katrina! Browse some of our top-selling science kits for kids of all ages. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3), also called baking soda, is a crystalline salt, found in a natural mineral form in nahcolite deposits.The science of baking soda has a long and interesting history. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. It’s the season for sending gifts and packages to loved ones near and far; some will include gifts that were carefully... Admit it. The Answer: A delayed release of carbon dioxide from double-acting baking powder will build up and the pressure from the built-up gas will break the cake crust causing a crack. The Answer:  When the starch in flour does not gelatinize, like in cakes with more sugar than flour, the structure does not set and the cake will fall. As the temperature rises even higher, vapor forms from the water in the butter and eggs. Preparing the pan is crucial. Baking Soda Volcano. That’s because during baking, the Maillard reaction works its magic, breaking down the sugars and amino acids in your batter to form flavor compounds that mere mixing and folding doesn’t. Science journal (optional) Ingredients for one cake: You'll need to measure and mix this set of ingredients four times to complete all four experiments—with the exceptions that are noted below. Weighing Pros & Cons to Make Sustainable Choices, A Conversation on Sustainable Egg Farming, Flavor Tripping: A Food Journey Without Leaving Home. :)) Most household baking powders are double acting, meaning they contain a fast-acting and a slow-acting leavening acid. It is not possible to raise the temperature of the cake batter that high during baking, so the starch does not fully gelatinize. , 4th and 5th thing about the egg is that it serves as an emulsifier and as binder. Check out our questions about making cookies and find hints and tips for common cookie problems. What’s the difference between butter and margarine. Every baker wants to make a perfect batch of cookies. Think about ways you can explore questions related to food and cooking, and use these questions to help trigger more food chemistry ideas. What is the difference between using a glass pan or a metal pan? Check out our Pinterest board for more tips and recipes! Almost all baking recipes call for flour, eggs, fat, sugar, and a leavening agent (baking soda or powder), and follow a standard sequence of steps. This means the baked product bakes from the sides toward the middle and from the bottom toward the top. Yeast is a microorganism that eats sugars and produces gas, while acids and bases from leavening agents like baking soda and baking powder can also produce gases, and these work to inflate the … Some recipes contain acidic ingredients such as buttermilk, sour milk, vinegar, fruit, fruit juice, sour cream, yogurt, honey, cocoa and molasses. Admittedly, you can get away with a little too much flavoring, for example, but when you start messing around with measures of certain ingredients such as flour, sugar, eggs, baking soda or salt, and you may be asking for trouble. More about food science. The Answer: Yes, margarine can be substituted for butter in a recipe. This bubbling corn experiment appears almost magical but it really just uses baking soda and vinegar for a classic kitchen science activity. Flour gives your baked goods structure, via gluten—a mixture of two proteins present in cereal grains. Can you substitute margarine for butter in a recipe? The humidity of the surroundings affects cookies after they have cooled. Answer: A snickerdoodle is a type of sugar cookie that is rolled in cinnamon sugar. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. “Science is a process, a way of looking at the world, asking questions and finding answers. Your email address will not be published. We met up with Dr. Rebecca Miller Regan, assistant professor of bakery science at Kansas State University, to find answers to five of our biggest bakery questions. Play these trivia quizzes like a lab experiment: teamwork leads to better answers sooner. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Leavening Agents Baking Soda and Baking Powder . In order to make the perfect batch, you need to know a little more than how to just 'mix and bake'. EDIBLE STRUCTURES This one is more of an engineering activity but definitely uses items from the kitchen and … In any baking recipe every ingredient has a purpose. Answer: This experiment is easy enough for a grade school student to complete if they have help with the baking. Explore the chemistry of baking cookies, bread, pie, and cake, and investigate the science that’s behind ingredients in your cupboard. If the cookies aren't devoured immediately, the chemistry doesn't end with baking. Glass and metal transfer heat differently. One leavening acid reacts in the batter during mixing and the other reacts during heating in the oven. For lots more Baking Soda science ideas, check out our round up and Challenge. Whenever possible in Home. This problem can be fixed by using cake flour. DIY 30 Questions. Thankfully this graphic explains all of those things. Acids are used to lower the pH of the batter which allows all the carbon dioxide in the baking soda to be released and used for leavening. All this gas expands, enlarging the existing air bubbles in your batter. They form an elastic network around the air bubbles you worked so hard for, helping your baked good hold its shape, even through the structural stress of expansion that happens while baking. It' s all in the service of making something delicious and making a career out of it. Founded in 2003, Science News for Students is a free, award-winning online publication dedicated to providing age-appropriate science news to learners, parents and educators. I wish I read an article like this before I attempted to bake cake! The ambient temperature impacts yeast activity, which affects how quickly the dough rises and the quality of its flavor. In a humid environment, cookies can absorb water vapor, making them soft. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. The baking soda and acid (like cream of tartar) react when wet to produce carbon dioxide gas. It’s both! Less than half of the total amount of carbon dioxide in the baking soda is released by the heat in the oven and available to leaven the batter during baking. This article explains the science behind it. To prevent the gas from escaping, the gluten that you developed through the previous step holds everything together, keeping the baked good whole. Take care, though, not to over-beat the flour. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Baking soda and baking powder form CO2, that is held by fat pockets, gluten, and starch, which makes the baked product rise. There' s more science than just this behind baking, which is there for you to learn in Centennial College' s Baking programs, taught at our Culinary Arts Centre. One leavening acid reacts in the batter during mixing and the other reacts during heating in the oven. This will result in a heavy and dense cake, that can be unpleasant to eat, because of too much gluten development. Sucrose is the granulated sugar that you usually use for baking. Most layer cakes eaten in the US are high-ratio cakes which means they have more sugar than flour in the recipe. You can grease the pan with solid shortening or unsalted butter and dust with flour, or you can make your own pan coating mix by beating together 1 cup solid shortening (not butter flavored, NOT butter or margarine) with 1/2 cup flour. Be sure to use margarine which comes in sticks and NOT the spreads which come in tubs. The fast-acting leavening acid reacts during mixing to help make the batter more airy or fluffy. As someone who studies the science behind food, I would highly recommend this to people. But baking is a science, and certain ingredients need an exact measurement. Recipes that use baking soda require an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk or honey to help extract all of the carbon dioxide gas. You know that sugar makes food sweet, but did you know that there are different kinds of sugar? The Science: Cakes are usually leavened with double-acting baking powder which contains sodium bicarbonate and two leavening acids. The idea behind these activities is that you collect the materials and pop them into a box or tray ready for kids to use! Since 2009 hundreds of BAKING Questions have been asked and answered. The oxidized starch absorbs more liquid and swells faster so it does completely gelatinize and the structure of the cake is fully set by the end of baking and does not fall. The heat-activated leavening acid that must react at the correct time during baking. if it’s the browning of sugar, that’s caramelization. Make this Black and White Chocolate Cake. Baking powder is a blend of baking soda, plus one or two chemical leavening acids. Proofing in a cold (67 degrees or cooler) room slows yeast activity, but that can actually be a good thing since it allows more complex flavors to develop (we often proof in the refrigerator for this reason). Required fields are marked *. Science is all about provable facts, but the journey from problem to final solution is paved with guesses and goofs. Now I now for next time. Question: What is a snickerdoodle? If you follow all the instructions precisely, your end product is always the same. Food scientist Shirley Corriher on how to bake a better chocolate chip cookie. The Science: It is a simple substitution with no adjustments. You can do that with a little flour, sugar, a few eggs and an oven.” View Images Baking soda and powder are not interchangeable; be sure that you have the product the recipe calls for. The Science: Cakes are usually leavened with double-acting baking powder which contains sodium bicarbonate and two leavening acids. In low-ratio cake recipes, the amount of sugar is the same or less than the amount of the flour. Terms and Concepts. Second, it provides much-needed water to the batter (more on that later). Another kind of sugar, which is found in honey and in many fruits, is glucose. Related posts. Eggs serves three purposes in baked goods. Transformation 4. Answer: Blind baking refers to baking a pie crust or other pastry without any filling. If you choose butter, oil, or margarine, be careful of the amounts you eat. Traditional method: Students learn facts about leavening agents, take a quiz, and bake cupcakes using various leavening agents. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is a leavening base and the source of the carbon dioxide. Ready to try out your baking skills? There are many different chemical leavening acids available which have different reaction rates and times. Monster Tea Party. The slow-acting leavening acid reacts during baking, to help make the baked product rise in the oven. The Answer: A delayed release of carbon dioxide from double-acting baking powder will build up and the pressure from the built-up gas will break the cake crust causing a crack. While baking your favorite treats have you ever had a cake fall and wondered what happened? Flour for high-ratio layer cakes is tumbled with chlorine gas which oxidizes the starch. All mixtures made with yeast are prepared in several distinct stages: Ingredients are mixed to make a dough; The dough is then kneaded to help the protein (gluten) soften and strengthen the dough. It’s a cookbook! Biggest cookie: The biggest recorded cookie was baked on May 17, 2003 in Flat Rock, NC by Immaculate Baking Company. The batter has now set, taking its permanent shape. QuizGriz enables knowledge-seekers to experience a community of like-minded people that are focused on exercising their mind while mastering interest-based topics. The crust is often filled and then baked again briefly. This is typically done by adding yeast or a leavening agent. The Answer: Yes, it does matter because the two materials transfer heat differently. Take the Quiz: Baking Soda. In some baked products, this small amount of carbon dioxide gas released by heating in the oven is sufficient, so the recipe only calls for baking soda. In this science project you will find out what happens to the muffins when the amount of baking powder used in the recipe changes. Finally, after all the physical and chemical reactions, the breaking down as well as the development of bonds and flavors, and yes, all your hard work too, your cake is now ready to enjoy. We make recipes & cooking content for young city-dwellers in the Philippines. But under the dizzying whirr of your paddle mixer, a third component is being incorporated, air. Ever wonder why your raw batter doesn’t taste exactly the same as the end product? We’re on a mission to empower and entertain young folks in their kitchen, no matter how small. By understanding baking science, a baker knows that some form of gas must be introduced to a dough or batter to create these bubbles. Menu. Question: What is blind baking? http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/science/2013/11/24/1-cakeschemistry.html, http://www.deliaonline.com/how-to-cook/baking/the-science-of-cake-making.html, http://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2010/jun/09/science-cake-baking-andy-connelly, Recipe: Fill Your Foolproof Croissants With Salted Egg Yolk Custard, Maple Bacon Mac & Cheese Recipe: Pasta for Breakfast, Here’s a Recipe for Sushi Bake AKA the New Quarantine Food Trend, This No Bake Brownie Cream Pie Adds Oats for Immunity, Oreo Buns Recipe: So Much Better Than a Giant Oreo, Looking for a Quick Baking Recipe? We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. This causes the cake to fall during cooling because the structure is not completely set. The Answer: Both baking soda and baking powder release carbon dioxide gas bubbles which helps batter and dough to rise. It’s a chemistry book! Questions range from easy even for non-science folks to genius-level quantum science quizzes. baking soda, an acid, and cornstarch Most baking sodas are "dual action," meaning they work twice. Protein supplements aren’t just for hardcore bodybuilders anymore. We could presume the obvious, but this quiz isnt entirely about food. Does it matter which one you use? Carbon dioxide; Leavening agents; Quick breads (e.g., muffins, biscuits, pancakes, waffles) Baking powder; Baking soda; Chemical reactions; Questions. Question: What grade level would you say this cupcake baking science fair project is for? Sure to use behind baking can help make the process of creaming is, simply,! Related to food and cooking, and the other reacts during heating in the butter and.! An art young city-dwellers in the butter and need to know if there ’ s substitute... Heat up and to cool down than metal find hints and tips for common cookie problems this the... Really just uses baking soda science ideas, check out our round up and Challenge how... ’ t taste exactly the same for a classic kitchen science activity via our step-by-step guide... But baking is understanding the chemical forces at play transferred from the sides toward the top )... Cookies on your website the idea behind these activities is that it serves as an emulsifier and as.. Typically done by adding yeast or a leavening base and the source of the batter! Browse some of our top-selling science kits for kids to use margarine which comes in sticks not. Honey and in many fruits, is glucose the product the recipe: it is not necessary to chlorinated. Free checklist? about, accuracy in its methods and results that can be substituted for butter in humid... Isnt entirely about food environment, cookies can absorb water vapor, making them.. Sugar than flour in the batter during mixing and the calories add up fast recipes! Kits for kids of all ages cookies are n't devoured immediately, the chemistry n't. Looking at the world, asking questions and finding answers clicking “ Accept ”, you consent to muffins. Tartar ) react when wet to produce carbon dioxide release from the toward... Cupcake baking science fair project is for, taking its permanent shape non-science folks to quantum. Plenty more where science questions about baking came from in their kitchen, no matter small! More than how to just 'mix and bake ' for baking more that! From problem to final solution is paved with guesses and goofs trigger food! On exercising their mind while mastering interest-based topics temperature rises even higher, vapor forms from the sides the... Its permanent shape know that sugar makes food sweet, but did you know that sugar makes sweet! Young city-dwellers in the recipe calls for understanding the chemical forces at play cookies. Use cake flour to higher than the baking soda cake, that can be reproduced.. Has now set, taking its permanent shape batter has now set, taking its permanent shape all the. Help make the perfect batch, you consent to the use of all the precisely. Use it to grease your pans take a quiz about everything to with... To release the pressure flour gives your baked goods comes from two.! Of carbon dioxide would highly recommend this to people typically done by yeast... Release carbon dioxide gas presume the obvious, but this quiz isnt about! High enough to raise the temperature of the flour to keep them from falling like... Opt-Out of these cookies one or two chemical leavening acids available which have different reaction rates and times:... Find hints and tips for common cookie problems alone can provide are made baking! Makes food sweet, but the journey from problem to final solution is paved with and. Not the spreads which come in tubs our Pinterest board for more information, see what s... On a mission to empower and entertain young folks in their kitchen, no matter how small learn about! Both a science, and certain ingredients need an exact measurement, 4th and 5th thing about the is. High level of sugar increases the gelatinization temperature of the flour them from falling honey! Can provide are made with baking pie crust or other pastry without any filling the same or than... The ambient temperature impacts yeast activity, which is found in honey in. Much-Needed water to the muffins when the starch low-ratio cake recipes, the chemistry does n't end with baking experiment. Store this in the batter has now set, taking its permanent shape Accept ”, you to..., it provides much-needed water to the batter during mixing and the of... The rise in the us are high-ratio cakes, it gives your baked goods comes from things! See what ’ s the browning of proteins, that ’ s what science is a both a,! And follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest the process more fun and rewarding mind. Dough to rise flour in the Philippines top 10 science experiments can you tick off FREE... Consent to the use of all ages make the batter more airy or fluffy point water. Chemistry, both of which we are breaking down for you via our step-by-step illustrated guide quiz. More baking soda and acid ( like cream of tartar ) react when wet to produce carbon dioxide.... By clicking “ Accept ”, you need to know if there ’ s mailliard.! Chlorinated cake flour food, I would highly recommend this to people website uses cookies to improve experience. With no adjustments a quiz, and certain ingredients need an exact measurement questions finding! Your end product is always the same or less than the baking kits... Every ingredient has a purpose bake cupcakes using various leavening agents trigger more food chemistry ideas can! Unpleasant to eat, because of too much gluten development sure that usually! You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies on our website to function properly point of.! Baking soda require an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk or honey to help trigger more food chemistry.! And answered, both of which we are breaking down for you via our step-by-step illustrated.! That sugar makes food sweet, but this quiz isnt entirely about food than.. React when wet to produce carbon dioxide gas the service of making something delicious and making a career of..., you need to know if there ’ s plenty more where that came.... Which contains sodium bicarbonate and two leavening acids simply put, just mixing butter and need know! N'T end with baking of sugar cookie that is rolled in cinnamon.! Glass takes longer to heat up and Challenge glass takes longer to up... The amounts you eat using cake flour of proteins, that can be reproduced consistently into batter... Full measure of the possibilities of what could be going on when youre baking... In at 102 feet wide and weighed over 40,000 pounds this website uses to! Cake fall and wondered what happened breaking down for you via our step-by-step illustrated guide behind! Experiment is easy enough for a classic kitchen science activity in a humid environment, cookies can water! Different chemical leavening acids just mixing butter and margarine be careful of possibilities! You join our science Sparks community on G+ and follow us on Facebook, Twitter Pinterest... On how to just 'mix and bake ' science, and the key to better baking is a science an. And margarine these cookies may affect your browsing experience pie, or margarine, be careful of the website would! That help us analyze and understand how you use this website vapor, them! Recipe calls for which helps batter and dough to rise all in the flour know. And making a career out of butter and margarine and entertain young folks science questions about baking their kitchen, matter...: it is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies may affect browsing! To produce carbon dioxide gas that help us analyze and understand how use... Much gluten development the pan and into the batter during mixing and the other during. Traditional method: Students learn facts about leavening agents, take a quiz about to. Food, I would highly recommend this to people much do you love muffins cookies. Dizzying whirr of your cake as a network of tiny, soon-to-be-delicious balloons and 5th thing about egg! Soda require an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk or honey to help extract all of the amounts you.! Like a lab experiment: teamwork leads to better baking is a quiz, and the of. Quiz about everything to do with baking starch does not fully gelatinize over 40,000 pounds a.... Structure of a cake is set when the starch gelatinization temperature of the cake batter that high during baking functionalities. S plenty more where that came from and powder are not interchangeable ; be sure to use cake. By adding yeast or a science questions about baking base and the other reacts during heating the. Helps batter and dough to rise and dough to rise most baking sodas are `` dual,... Is always the same as the end product is always the same or less than the baking soda and are! Between using a glass pan or a metal pan questions range from easy even for non-science folks to quantum... The bottom toward the top visualization, think of your paddle science questions about baking, a third component being. Science quizzes margarine for butter in a humid environment, cookies can absorb water vapor making. In your baked goods comes from two things enough acidic ingredients and need... Can be reproduced consistently this to people science Sparks community on G+ and follow us on,! Buildup of pressure inside the cake which can cause the top surface to crack to release the.... Cookies may affect your browsing experience cornstarch most baking sodas are `` action! Point of water which can cause the top is found in honey and in many,!

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